In the second century ad, an important invention was made in India: two belts with small rings at the ends were attached to the saddle. Now the rider was mounting the horse with his big toe in one of the rings.
The invention of the stirrup occurred in India, most likely because only in this country there was a unification of riding and chariot horses. Chariots and cavalry were used in the Indian armies in parallel.
Moreover, the Kshatriya cavalry resembled the Numidian cavalry – they used mainly javelins, and only in extreme cases – curved swords.
The theory of the use of stirrups
How to use streptomitino stirrup arm (approx) is in the stall.
In the saddle, the stirrup is adjusted to the upper edge of the boot heel or the ankle.
The correct fit of stirrups is checked by standing in the stirrups so that a fist passes between the saddle and the rider’s body. Before leaving the stall, fill the stirrup.
and. To raise the stirrup on the lower belt stirrup straps
b. Utlise to preteroti inside the stirrup
V. to Consolidate utlise around the support part of the stirrup
Outside of India, however, this remarkable invention did not work – in other countries, riders usually wore shoes and could not use a ring under the thumb. But two centuries later, the Chinese came up with the idea of enlarging the ring so that the entire foot could be inserted into it. It turned out to be a stirrup, which gives a much greater opportunity to the rider than a finger ring, which is only suitable for simplifying the landing.
The stirrups solved a lot of problems at once – you could ride as fast as you liked, you could jump over obstacles: the rider rose on the stirrups, thus saving his rear from crushing blows. Landing became much more reliable, since you could not only rest your feet, but also maneuver the center of gravity. It was possible to spin in the saddle and hang from it, striking in different directions. Finally, the ability to start a horse at a gallop greatly increased the effectiveness of a hit-and-run attack.
Having a foothold on the stirrup, the rider no longer risked falling with a dashing swing and, instead of tethered sarissas, short spears for the upper blow and curved swords, the cavalry began to use long spears, which could be struck in any direction, heavy axes and long swords, and later – and sabres.
The stirrup began to spread rapidly around the world, because, in principle, only the idea was important here – any people who could make iron could make stirrups.
Already in the VI century, stirrups appeared in the Byzantine cavalry – and immediately after this innovation, the Byzantines began to beat the Goths, whose cavalry had previously suffered defeats.
Even earlier, stirrups were used in Iran and the Arabian Peninsula. The nomads of the great Steppe also improved their saddles.