Horseback riding. Rules, teams, training
Training in horse riding for novice riders should be preceded by theoretical training and mastering the techniques of bridling, saddling, leading the horse in the lead, parsing the reins when landing, riding and Dismounting from the horse
When riding in an open or closed arena, a certain order is required, which helps to maintain the designations, arena figures, rules, as well as commands and instructions.
An interval is the distance between two nearby riders, measured from stirrup to stirrup.
Distance is the distance from the tail of the leading horse to the head of the one following it. The distance is measured in steps (about 1 m) and the length of the horse (3 steps). Unless otherwise specified, the shift always follows a distance of 6 steps. The distance is a length of 6 paces (two horses), if the rider will see between the ears of his horse hooves of the hind legs of the front horse.
The rider or shift moves by riding to the right (left) if his right (left) side is facing inside the arena. The inside of a horse is the side that it has a resolution on (the resolution is a slight turn of the horse’s head to one side or the other so that the rider can see half of the horse’s eye). If the horse is walking in a straight line, the inner side is called the side facing inside the arena.
The outside of the horse is opposite to the regulation, and in a direct regulation, it is the side facing the wall of the arena.
When learning to ride, riding apart is used. Each rider independently determines the place and time of performing a given exercise. At the same time, you should correctly maintain the Manege figures. The rider should not ride all the time after the other, he is constantly looking for his way, switching, for example, to ride in a circle. The point of riding apart is that each rider manages their own horse, and the horses do not pull each other. To maintain order, the teacher determines the gait, pace, and direction of movement, as well as sets the exercise.
At the end of the ride apart, riders on the team again gather in a shift. While riding apart, the teacher can take turns with individual athletes, while the others continue to perform the required exercise independently.
When learning to ride a horse to perform different exercises are used the command. The main ones should be known to every horseman.
All commands, except for the commands of Attention or Reason, are divided into two parts – preliminary and Executive. The preliminary part allows the rider to find out how to control the horse and how to influence it.
Executive team March! it is served slowly so that the rider has time to convey his demand to the horse.
The most necessary commands are as follows:
Step – March. At the command Step! they are adjusted to the fact that it is necessary to soften the rein and send the horse forward with a schenkel. Team Mars! “they send out a horse and move at a walk.
Trot – March! “they’re breaking into a trot.
If we have to go training at a trot, the command trot Training – March !
Shift (or riders) – one hundred-o-th! – the preliminary command warns that it will be followed by the command-Stop! so we need to pull the reins and stop moving. On the Executive command of the Hundred-o-th! stop the horse and stand at Attention at the command! ( the horse must stand straight on all four legs).
Change of direction (from a corner or through the middle of the arena) – mA-Arsh! The change of direction is made from the place where the Executive team finds it . If from a corner, then along the diagonal of the arena or Playground. Serve the Executive command in such a way that the turn is obtained when the horse passes six steps from the corner along the long wall or diagonally does not reach six steps to the opposite corner. This way, the turns will not be sharp, but smooth.
Change of direction through the arena is made perpendicular to the long side. Right (or left) back – at the command of MA-a-Arsh! make a half-volt (semicircle) with a diameter of 5-6 m and, approaching the wall with a half-turn, move in the opposite direction.
Volt left (or right) – mA-a-Arsh! – at the Executive command, make a full circle with a diameter of 5-6 m, moving away from the wall and coming back to it , and continue moving in the original direction.
Left (or right) around, mA-a-Arsh ! – the execution command must be followed by a full stop, followed by the movement of the horse’s front legs around the hind legs in the specified direction. The hind legs of the horse move in place, and the front legs describe a circle: the head of the horse looks in the direction of the turn, and the axis of the turn is the inner hind leg.
Left (or right) round the front-mA-a-Arsh ! – the Executive command should be followed by a full stop and then the movement of the horse’s back around the front.
The front legs should move in place, and the back legs should describe a circle. The head of the horse should be directed towards the movement of the hind legs, and the axis of rotation should be the inner front leg.
Ago is equal to – mA – a – Arsh ! This command is usually given from the position of the stand in place – you need to rein the horse back.
The most difficult of these exercises are turns around on the back and front legs, since they require separate work of each schenkel and some skill in the interaction of the schenkel, the rein and the body, which always act in the direction of the turn. Therefore, these exercises are done only at the end of the first year of training, when riders will gain experience.
When moving to a slower gait, such as from a gallop to a trot or from a trot to a walk, drawling commands are given R-R-trot! or Sha-a-GOM! without a command, March!
Changes of directions, volts and races can be carried out by a group of riders, independently and by the head number. To move by the head number, add the word: by the head number before the preliminary command. For example: on the head number change of direction through the middle of the arena-mA-a-Arsh!
At races and volts, the horse must be bent in the side along the circumference, which is described by this reason . This bending can be achieved by acting with an internal rein and working with shankels, of which the outer one is drawn back a little.
The position that is achieved by this is called the position of the horse in the direction of the turn. In this case, the internal schenkel is like the axis of rotation.
You need to learn how to make a decision in one direction and the other, going in a straight line, but in this case it is much smaller than when turning. Usually it is enough to see half of the horse’s eye, but when walking in a straight line, it is necessary to make sure that the horse puts its hind legs on the track of the front ones.
Having learned well what a resolution is and having learned to achieve it easily, you can proceed to the development of the gallop.
The canter is the gait in three tempos. A horse, leaning, for example, on the left hind leg at the first pace, puts the left front and right hind leg (left diagonal) at the second pace, goes out at the third pace on the right front, and then repeats these movements, separated by the moment of hanging in the air between the third and first pace, until it is transferred to a trot or step.
A gallop that has the third pace under the right front leg is called a right – foot gallop, and a gallop that has the third pace under the left front leg is called a left-foot gallop.
All trained horses must be able to gallop on both their left and right legs, and every first-year rider must be able to make a horse canter off a particular leg.
When riding in the arena on the wall at the command Gallop-mA-a-Arsh! the horse always rises from the inner leg, namely: when riding to the left – from the left, when riding to the right-from the right. If the horse goes with the outside leg, this gallop is called a counter gallop.
During the ride, you should always carefully listen to the movement of the horse and try to prevent disobedience by sending a timely message. If the horse tries to speed up the gallop-schenkel should be completely calm, and the action of the rein increases.
For a rider who knows how to sit well on a training and drill trot and can perform all the above exercises , riding at a gallop does not present any difficulties.