Horse and rider equipment
All riding equipment can be divided into three groups:
the means of protection, horse
means that ensure the most comfortable and correct position of the rider on the horse
To control the horse, the features of the structure of its jaws are used. In the area of the toothless edge of the jaw, a trenzel (bit) is inserted, consisting of a gnaw and two metal rings. The effect of the gnaw on the tongue, jaw and lips of the horse makes it possible to control its head, neck and shoulders, slow down and stop movement.
In order that the pressure of metal bits on the horse’s mouth was not painful, trenzelny iron is made thick enough. Thicker snaffle bit less painful effect on the horse’s mouth, and so they are called less strict. Thin bit is called the more stringent. These bits can not be used for horses with a soft (that is, with a very sensitive) mouth. Strict bits are used for tight-bridled horses, which have poorly developed sensitivity of the mouth. There are different designs of bits, but the bit always consists of two or three parts. Otherwise, the horse can easily bite the bit-grab them with his teeth, and then it will cease to obey the rider.
Reins are used to transmit commands through the bit to the rider. The left and the right rein attached to the snaffle rings with buckles. Reins are made of leather or braid. The headband consists of a system of belts: two cheek, head (occipital), forehead, chin, portable (nahrap) capsule. In various designs of bridles, certain belts may be missing. The rein, bit, and headband together make up the bridle.
A martingale is sometimes fastened to the bridle. This is the name of a device that prevents horses that lift their heads very high from raising them above a certain level. If the horse raises its head, it is difficult to control, and throwing its head back, it can hit the back of the rider’s head. One end of the martingale is attached to the saddle girth; the reins are passed freely through the rings of the other two. When learning to ride a horse, use auxiliary means of controlling the horse: a whip, spurs, cord and whip.
This is a fairly flexible rod with a length of 50-70 cm and a thickness of 1 cm.a firecracker is attached to the end of the whip to soften the impact. When mounted, the whip is held down in the right hand. By gently touching the horse’s flank with the whip, the rider indicates that it has not fulfilled his request. For many horses, the mere feel of the whip in the rider’s hand is enough. But when the horse goes out of control, the whip is used for punishment. Once or twice the rider strikes the horse’s flank with his whip. It is strictly forbidden to be cruel to a horse or to beat it. A rider who beats a horse is removed from the competition. He may even be deprived of sporting titles and the possibility of further communication with horses.
Do not confuse the concepts of cruelty and demanding. In the friendship of real people, the combination of mutual respect and demands leads to understanding of each other. And in relations with animals, you must learn to combine affection with the ability to persistently demand from them obedience and obedience to the will of man. No need to curry favor with the horse, waiting for this kind of its location. It is best to do without a whip at all. This was very well said in the last century by the author of the famous book the Basics of dressage and riding, the Englishman James phillis: “Once I’m in the saddle, the whip is off. A real rider is a schenkel and a reason. The bad – the whip”
One of the most important means of controlling a riding horse is the rider’s legs. The inner side of the legs from the heel to the knee was called the schenkel. In order to increase the impact of the legs on the sides of the horse, people have long started to make spurs of different designs and different lengths. Who only did not wear them: and heroes, and knights, and Musketeers, Cossacks, hussars, Uhlans, cavalry, Dragoons, horse guards.
Currently, athletes most often have spherical spurs and spurs with a smooth Burr. Spurs with a wheel are prohibited – they can easily injure the sides of the animal. A novice rider cannot use spurs: he can not only spoil, but even injure the horse, and he will not learn to ride it correctly.
During the taming of the horse, training her in jumping, dressage techniques, as well as when it is warm I use the Korda – Tasmania smooth band length 10 – 15 m and a width of 4 cm At one end of a strap, fastened with a buckle, and the other loop with a length of about 20 cm When the cord used in training horses in the arena, the athlete is fastened by cord to the right or the left ring of the snaffle and moves away from the animal for a few metres, spreading the ribbon cords. Then he passes one hand into the loop, and the other adjusts the tension of the cord. Well-trained horses move in a circle at any gait, obeying the commands of the athlete, loudly and clearly pronounced aloud: Step!, Lynx!, Gallop!. When moving the horse to the left, the cord is held in the left hand, when moving to the right – in the right.
To regulate the movement of young, lazy and unruly animals on the cord, when training horses to jump over obstacles and the main elements of dressage, a whip is used. It is not so difficult to make it yourself: you need an elastic stick of light wood 1.5 m long for the handle and a 3 m long drummer woven from thin straps, securely attached to the handle.
The means of protection, horse
To protect the horse from hypothermia, a blanket is used, and to prevent injuries during training and competitions, bandages, pins and rubber booths are used.
Used when transporting horses, a sharp decrease in temperature in the stable, to protect a hot horse and to warm the patient. It is usually made of wool fabric and fastened to the horse’s body with fasteners.
Special cotton bandages are used for binding the horse’s legs. They protect tendons and ligaments from sprains.
To avoid bruises and other damages of the legs of the horse, often on top of the bandages applied to the pastern leather boots. On the leg, the pin is fastened or laced.
To protect the corollas of the legs from notches (abrasions and wounds when hitting a hoof or horseshoe one foot on the Corolla of the other during the movement of the horse), rubber hooves are pulled on the hooves.