Gait is a method and form of movement of the horse by alternating periods of support and pushing with the feet when resting on the ground and bending and unbending them in the unsupported phase.
Allure (FR. allure gait) a method of forward movement of a horse. The natural gait (walk, trot, canter). Artificial gait (elements of the riding school: piaffe, passage)
The movements of a horse are associated with a change in the position of its center of gravity as a result of moving the head, neck, and limbs.
In a horse standing on an even place, with a normally placed neck and head, the center of gravity is located somewhat behind the front legs, at the intersection of the vertical line coming out of the 8th – 9th thoracic vertebrae, with a horizontal plane located at the level of the shoulder joints, i.e. somewhat behind and above its elbows. When the horse is moving uphill or during a race, the center of gravity is shifted by pulling the head and neck forward, respectively. Pulling the horse’s head and neck back eases its front part. Turns of the head and neck to the right or left carry the mass of the horse from one side to the other. The movement of the horse is performed as a result of the contraction of the croup muscles. By moving the hind legs forward and straightening them, the horse moves the trunk forward, moving the center of gravity behind the forelimbs. This situation upsets the balance. To restore it, the horse steps with its front legs. Thus, the movement consists of alternating disturbance and restoration of balance. Leaning the horse on the ground when moving can be on three, two and one leg (when standing – on four legs). At fast gaits, the horse, having pushed off with its hind legs, is for some time in the air without support in the so-called phase of unsupported movement (suspension).
The main natural gaits of a horse are stride, trot, gallop, and amble. In addition, there are artificial gaits. These include, first of all, elements of the higher school of riding (piaffe, passage, Spanish step and trot, pirouette, gallop on three legs, etc.), which are developed in the horse by special training.
The slowest gait, in which the horse rests on the surface of each of the four legs in turn. The step movement begins with a push with the back foot. If the step starts with a push with the back right foot, then the front left foot rises, then the back left foot rises, and finally the front right foot. Depending on the degree of removal of the limbs, there are collected (the traces of the hind hooves do not reach the traces of the front hooves or coincide with them), medium (the horse’s hind legs come in front of the traces of the front hooves) and added (far exceeds the hind legs through the traces of the front). The length of the step varies from 0.8 to 1.2 m; the frequency is about 100 steps in 1 min. the speed of the step in a heavy truck is 4-5 km / h, in horses of fast gaits – 6-7. When moving at a walk, the horse is less tired and shows the greatest force of traction.
One of the fast gaits in two tempos with a phase of unsupported movement, with the horse’s feet resting diagonally on the surface. If the movement begins with the left hind leg, then the right front leg immediately rises behind it, then the right back and left front. Since the attack with both feet in each pair occurs simultaneously, the movement is performed in 2 bars and when it is complete, you can hear 2 hooves hitting the ground. Depending on the degree of collection of the horse and the width of the Mach distinguish collected, working and added trot. The speed of the average trot is about 2 times the speed of the step. The speed of a quiet trot is 9-10 km/h, average-11-13, fast-14-15 and maximum-up to 30 km/h.the most lively trot is characteristic of trotters. The world record for speed at 1,600 m is 1 min. 52 1/5 s. the quietest trot is called trot, followed by a sweep, max and a fast (prize) trot. The moment of suspension begins with a swing, when one diagonal pair has already left the ground, and the other has not yet descended. The wider the trot, the further the hind legs of the horse cross the tracks of the front ones and the longer the suspension phase. The length of a single step on the trot is from 2.5 to 6 meters. During riding, they often go at a ” light “trot (other names” drill”, “English”). That is, when the horse takes out one front leg, the rider increases the emphasis on the knees and pushes the body forward and up, and when the other front leg is taken out, the rider gently falls into the saddle. In the arena, the rider “relieves” under the inner front leg, and moving in the field – alternately, for even distribution of the load.
Fast gait in two tempos with a phase of unsupported movement. But in contrast to the lynx, when ambling alternately off the ground and put on it one-sided limbs-front and back right and front and back left. On the amble, there are side swings of the trunk, making this gait unstable. Pacers often lose their balance on sharp turns, and stumble on uneven roads. Horses on the amble show less traction than on the trot, which is why they are not suitable for working in a harness with a large load. Pacers are most convenient for fast riding in light carriages and for use under the saddle. Speed up to 10 km / h. Under the saddle, they pass up to 120 km per day. the length of the step when ambling is shorter, and the frequency is greater than when trotting. Therefore, the speed of movement on the amble is sometimes higher than on the trot. The world record for the speed of Pacers at 1600 m is 1 min. 49.6 s. The ability to amble is innate and therefore Pacers do not move at a trot, and a horse running at a trot will not switch to a amble.
The fastest jump-like gait in three tempos with a phase of unsupported movement. At the same time, first one of the hind legs rests on the ground, and then the second hind leg joins it simultaneously with the diagonal front, and finally, after the rear leg that has started moving off the ground, only one diagonal front leg rests on it, followed by a phase of unsupported movement.
Depending on which front leg is carried further forward, a gallop is distinguished from the right or left leg. When moving in the arena, the horse goes with the inner (i.e., facing the center of the arena) leg, otherwise it is said that the horse goes counter-gallop.
The speed of a horse at a gallop is on average 15 ≈ 20 km/h. according to the speed and nature of the movement, there are Manege gallops (short) up to 300 m/min., field – shortened (canter) – 400-750 m/min. and frisky (quarry) can reach up to 1000 m/min.
The speed increases by increasing the Mach length at a constant frequency of jumps. The length of a single step at a gallop is from 5 to 8 meters. World speed record at a gallop of 53.7 s. (at 1000 m).
The gallop on three legs
High school riding exercise
Allure three crosses
A figurative expression that means ultra-fast execution of a task. It goes back to the ancient custom on packages with military messages to indicate the speed with which they must be delivered to the recipient by horse messengers. One cross meant an ordinary speed of 8-10 km/h. Two crosses – 12 km/h.